Seeded Marijuana

Weed communities in agronomic fields are dominated by annual species. Summer annuals initiate growth each spring from seeds found in the upper soil profile (Figure 1). In most fields, a small percentage of the emerging plants survive and contribute new seeds to the soil seedbank. Historically, most research of the annual weed life cycle has focused on seed dormancy and emergence (A), effect of control tactics on weed survival (B), and weed seed production (C). The fate of seeds between the time of maturation on the plant and entering the seedbank (D) has largely been ignored. New Zealand officials say anti-vaccination protesters seeded cannabis during a three-week occupation. Hey guys, out of curiosity, I'm wondering, if a female plant gets pollinated by male plant's pollen and it starts developing seeds, would it be better to…

Weed seed predation in agricultural fields

Weed communities in agronomic fields are dominated by annual species. Summer annuals initiate growth each spring from seeds found in the upper soil profile (Figure 1). In most fields, a small percentage of the emerging plants survive and contribute new seeds to the soil seedbank. Historically, most research of the annual weed life cycle has focused on seed dormancy and emergence (A), effect of control tactics on weed survival (B), and weed seed production (C). The fate of seeds between the time of maturation on the plant and entering the seedbank (D) has largely been ignored. However, current research at Iowa State University and other organizations has shown that significant seed losses routinely occur in agronomic fields, and these losses may influence the effectiveness of weed management programs. This article will provide a brief summary of some of the current research in this area and the potential importance of seed predation to weed management.

Prairie deer mouse – a common seed predator.

Plant seeds are storage organs for high energy compounds that supply plant embryos the resources needed to germinate and develop into seedlings. These energy reserves are an excellent food source for a variety of animals that live in or near agricultural fields, including ground beetles (carabid beetles), crickets, mice and others. Estimates of cumulative seed losses due to seed predators have ranged from 20% for barnyardgrass and lambsquarter in a chisel plow system (Cromar et al. 1999) to 88% for giant ragweed in no-tillage (Harrison et al. 2003).

A common method of measuring seed predation involves lightly attaching seeds to sandpaper or a similar material and placing the seed cards in the field. After a few days the card is retrieved and the percentage of seeds removed is determined (Westerman et al. 2005). Averaged over 12 sampling periods from May through November, seed losses ranged from 7 to 22% per day depending on the crop present in the field in a study conducted near Boone, IA (Figure 2). The higher predation rates in small grain and alfalfa compared to corn and soybean may be due to differences in crop canopy development. The rate of seed predation typically increases as a crop canopy develops within a field. Corn and soybean canopies provide little protection for predators early in the growing season compared to small grain or alfalfa, and thus predators may seek other habitats when little canopy is present. Later in the season, predator activity is typically similar in corn and soybeans as in other field crops.

Insect predators (field crickets, ground beetles, etc.) are active during the growing season when temperatures are favorable for cold-blooded species, whereas field mice are active year round. Seed predators have a remarkable ability to locate seeds on the soil surface; however, once seeds move into the soil profile the threat of predation is greatly reduced. The highest rates of seed predation likely occur in late summer and early fall when weed seeds are shed from plants onto the soil surface. Tillage buries the majority of seeds at depths where predation is minimal. Avoiding or delaying fall tillage following harvest should increase seed losses due to predation. Seeds can also enter the profile due to the impact of rain droplets, by falling into cracks, or due to freezing/thawing cycles during the winter. Ongoing research at ISU is evaluating the fate of seeds on the soil surface and how long they remain available to predators.

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Field crickets on seed card.

The preference of predators for different species of weed seeds in the field is poorly understood. When given a choice, seed predators often will feed preferentially on one species over another (van der Laat et al. 2006; Figure 3). A common question is whether seed predators pose a threat to crop seed. Seed size and depth of planting minimize risks of corn and soybean seed losses to predators. Small-seeded legumes and grasses are at greater risk for predation losses, but proper planting where the majority of seed are placed under the soil surface should minimize losses.

Significant numbers of weed seeds are consumed by predators in agronomic fields, but the full impact of seed predation on weed densities and weed management is poorly documented. Clearly, destruction of a significant percentage of the weed seeds produced in a field will impact the following year’s weed density. The impact of giant foxtail seed rain and seed predation on giant foxtail densities was evaluated near Boone, IA (Figure 4). Giant foxtail seed (750 / sq ft) were spread on the soil surface in standing corn in late September 2004. The field was planted to no-till soybean in 2005 and foxtail emergence monitored throughout the season. The experimental area had a history of good weed control, thus foxtail densities were very low (

Modeling efforts at ISU have shown that seed predation can significantly affect long-term weed population dynamics within agricultural fields. For example, in a 4-year crop rotation (corn/soybean/small grain+alfalfa/alfalfa) the seed bank of giant foxtail rapidly increased from 2000 seed/m 2 to 4.3 million seed / sq m over an 18 year simulation period in the absence of predation (Figure 5). However, allowing for 25% seed predation resulted in a static seed bank, whereas any seed predation in access of 25% resulted in a decline in the seed bank density. The diverse rotation required 80% less herbicide than a conventionally managed corn-soybean rotation.

The value of intercepting weed seed before they enter the seed bank is somewhat of a forgotten control tactic. In the 1930’s and 40’s, combines were commonly equipped with a weed seed collector that separated and collected weed seed from chaff as the crop was harvested. When modern herbicides were introduced in the 1950’s, it was considered less expensive and more convenient to control weeds with chemicals, and these accessories quickly disappeared from combines. In Australia, seed collectors are again being used on combines due to widespread herbicide resistance and the loss of effective herbicides. Rigid ryegrass infestations have been reduced by as much as 70% through use of weed seed collectors during harvest (Gill, 1995). The effectiveness of weed seed collectors varies among weed species depending on timing of seed shed. Weed species that drop the majority of their seed prior to crop harvest would not be impacted significantly by use of weed seed collectors.

Weed seeds are an important food source for a variety of organisms that live within or adjacent to agricultural fields. It is clear that seed predation is an important form of biological control that influences weed communities within agricultural fields. Yet to be defined is how cropping systems can be manipulated to enhance the activity of seed predators and maximize their benefit, therefore allowing reductions in other more disruptive control tactics.

ISU research cited in this article was partially funded by:

The Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture

USDA National Research Initiative

References

Cromar, H.E, S.D. Murphyand C.J. Swanton. 1999. Influence of tillage and crop residue on postdispersal predation of weed seeds . Weed Sci. 47:184-194

Gill, G.S. 1005. Development of herbicide resistance in annual ryegrass in the cropping belt of Western Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 35:67-72.

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Harrison , S.K., E.E. Regnier and J.T. Schmoll. 2003. Postdispersal predation of giant ragweed seed in no-tillage corn. Weed Sci. 51:955-964.

van der Laat, R., M. D.K. Owen and M. Liebman. 2006. Quantification of post-dispersal weed seed predation and invertebrate activity-density in three tillage regimes. J. Agric. Ecosys. Envir. Under review.

Westerman, P.R., M. Liebman, F.D. Menalled, A.H. Heggenstaller, R.G. Hartzler and P.M. Dixon. 2005. Are many little hammers effective? – Velvetleaf population dynamics in two- and four-year crop rotation systems. Weed Sci. 53:382-392.

After the Protesters Left, an Illicit Weed Began Growing in Parliament’s Garden

New Zealand officials say anti-vaccination protesters seeded cannabis during a three-week occupation.

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Anti-vaccine protesters left trash and other surprises outside Parliament in Wellington, New Zealand, this month. Credit. Mike Scott/New Zealand Herald, via Associated Press

When anti-vaccination protesters finally cleared out of New Zealand’s Parliament grounds after a three-week occupation, they left behind a scene of destruction and disorder — the charred remains of a children’s playground, camping equipment and human waste, among other items.

This week, a man eating lunch in the Parliament garden spotted something else left behind by protesters — cannabis seedlings nestled among the brassicas and marigolds.

The unidentified man told Radio New Zealand, the national broadcaster, that he might not have “inhaled” back in university, but he had a “fairly good idea” what kind of plants were sprouting “just meters away from the debating chamber.”

The discovery prompted a swift operation by groundskeepers to find, uproot and destroy the plants sneakily seeded in the Parliament’s garden in the capital, Wellington.

“We are weeding out the weed,” Trevor Mallard, the speaker of Parliament, assured New Zealanders in a statement.

The discovery raised questions about what other surprises protesters might leave behind as a new anti-vaccination group took to social media to plan another protest for Friday.

A representative for the grounds told the national broadcaster that “a lot” of marijuana seeds had been scattered around by protesters. Seedlings for cilantro, tomatoes, other vegetables and herbs were also left behind. The man who originally found the marijuana plants pronounced it “a shame,” and added, “The law is the law.”

In New Zealand, the possession and manufacture of recreational cannabis remain illegal after 53 percent of voters voted against legalizing marijuana in a 2020 referendum. In the lead-up to the vote, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern declined to throw her support behind either side to avoid, she suggested, influencing the outcome. Later, she revealed she had voted in favor of legalization.

The protest over the country’s strict vaccine mandates lasted 23 days and attracted hundreds of people from across the country. The crowd grew to include conspiracy theorists and others who descended on the site to rage against various grievances. What began as a peaceful protest resembling a music festival ended in dramatic and sometimes bloody clashes with the police. Fires broke out. Protesters wielded fire extinguishers, paint-filled projectiles and other homemade weapons. Dozens of officers were injured.

Weeks later, relations between the New Zealand government and protesters against the vaccine mandate remain strained.

Last Wednesday, Ms. Ardern announced that the country would move away from its vaccine requirements and abandon other Covid restrictions, including ending vaccine passes in shops and other venues, even as the Omicron variant has caused widespread outbreaks.

But some groups are pushing for a complete end to those restrictions. A new anti-vaccine group announced plans to protest in Wellington on Friday, prompting workers to put up fences around Parliament and police officers to turn out.

In the end, only a few people showed up to protest at a war memorial near Parliament. The rain had begun to fall — perfect for seedlings but not, apparently, for protesters.

How good is seeded weed ?

Hey guys, out of curiosity, I’m wondering, if a female plant gets pollinated by male plant’s pollen and it starts developing seeds, would it be better to chop it earlier ? to avoid all the plant using to much THC and energy to develop seeds ?

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How good can weed that has seeds be ? I mean i will remove and not smoke the seeds, just curios about the high u get from this kind of bud .

Hydrotech364
Well-Known Member

Can Ya say that in English Lol?If You have a Mom bearing seed She will take longer to finish but are just as powerful.However if You have a Hermie that has been playing with itself and has umpteen gillion seed’s it sux.

Lo Budget
Well-Known Member

IMO, it’s better to ride it out than to chop early. Seeded weed can still be pretty good, better than immature weed.

LokoTrashman
Active Member

I hope it will be very good , it had a long vegetative stage for almost 4 months.

I also have a huge hermie plant, that has massive buds, and they are all frosty by now (yum) haha, I would like to know if they can be really good ? given how they look.

greenlikemoney
Well-Known Member

OK, do you have a hermie plant or do you have a female plant that is throwing nanners? Many people call them both “hermies” but that’s not actually correct. Which do you have?

Hydrotech364
Well-Known Member
LokoTrashman
Active Member

OK, do you have a hermie plant or do you have a female plant that is throwing nanners? Many people call them both “hermies” but that’s not actually correct. Which do you have?

It was a plant that first showed pistils but in about 1 week or so it started growing balls as well i think it was genetic not stress related that caused a hermie. I have separately a small plant that has a ways to go till finish, it first grew balls and recently developed a few pistils.

Curious about the big hermie is that, it has buds that have little to no balls and entire buds that are all balls (that have opened by now).

greenlikemoney
Well-Known Member

Sounds like you have hermies, shoulda killed them long ago and bought quality seeds. My guess is you are growing bagseed, no?

oldtimer54
Well-Known Member

Back in the day. many moons ago all we had was seeded weed and it got me mucho stoned. There is nothing wrong with letting your pollinated female go full term hell if everyone did that it would run the seed dealers out of business go for it homie hell I try every year to make my own seeds and this year was no exception.
Just think you’ve just created something that no one has ever smoked before take pride in that !

MonkeyGrinder
Well-Known Member

Sounds like true hermies if you haven’t stressed em. If you’re over the 3/4 mark in flowering time I say ride it out. If they popped banners with no stress though I personally wouldn’t further the line by using or passing on the seeds. Just start pulling nanners like mad when you see em.

GvegasGrowa
Well-Known Member

Back in the day. many moons ago all we had was seeded weed and it got me mucho stoned. There is nothing wrong with letting your pollinated female go full term hell if everyone did that it would run the seed dealers out of business go for it homie hell I try every year to make my own seeds and this year was no exception.
Just think you’ve just created something that no one has ever smoked before take pride in that !

I agree. Has it really gotten to the point were ppl have never smoked shwag. Before the days of the interweb every bag had seeds. Ocassionally we’d get “hydro”. that meant it was good & had no seeds. I never knew why tho. Never questioned it either. Youd hear stories about this guy some1 knows who grew weed without dirt. but that was bullshit. Everybody knew weed came from mexico. nancy reagan wouldnt lie.