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U.S. Food and Drug Administration

What You Should Know About Using Cannabis, Including CBD, When Pregnant or Breastfeeding

FDA strongly advises against the use of cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and marijuana in any form during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

A mother holding an infant, a pregnant woman holding baby shoes, a marijuana leaf and the letters CBD and the word WARNING

Cannabis and Cannabis-derived products have become increasingly available in recent years, with new and different types of products appearing all the time. These products raise questions and concerns for many consumers. And if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you might have even more questions about whether these products are safe for you.

FDA strongly advises against the use of cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and marijuana in any form during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

What are cannabis, marijuana, hemp, THC and CBD?

Cannabis is a plant of the Cannabaceae family and contains more than eighty biologically active chemical compounds. The most commonly known compounds are THC and CBD. One type of cannabis plant is marijuana, which contains varying levels of THC, the compound that produces the “high” that is often associated with marijuana. Another type of cannabis plant is hemp. Hemp plants contain extremely low amounts of THC. CBD, which does not produce a “high,” can be derived from either marijuana or hemp.

We are now seeing CBD-containing products everywhere. CBD can be found in many different products, like drugs, foods, products marketed as dietary supplements, and cosmetics. These products often make questionable health promises about CBD.

FDA wants you to know there may be serious risks to using cannabis products, including those containing CBD, if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

What do we know about the effects of marijuana use during pregnancy and while breastfeeding?

There are many potential negative health effects from using marijuana and other products containing THC during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. In fact, the U.S. Surgeon General recently advised consumers that marijuana use during pregnancy may affect fetal brain development, because THC can enter the fetal brain from the mother’s bloodstream. The Surgeon General also advised that marijuana may increase the risk of a newborn with low birth weight. Research also suggests increased risk for premature birth and potentially stillbirth 1 .

While breastfeeding, it is important to know that breastmilk can contain THC for up to six days after use. This THC may affect a newborn’s brain development and result in hyperactivity, poor cognitive function, and other long-term consequences.

Additionally, marijuana smoke contains many of the same harmful components as tobacco smoke. Neither marijuana nor tobacco products should be smoked around a baby or children.

What do we know about the effects of CBD use during pregnancy and while breastfeeding?

There is no comprehensive research studying the effects of CBD on the developing fetus, pregnant mother, or breastfed baby. FDA is continuing to collect and study the data on the possible harmful effects of CBD during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. However, based on what we do know, there is significant cause for concern.

High doses of CBD in pregnant test animals have caused problems with the reproductive system of developing male fetuses 2 . In addition, based on what we already know about CBD, we expect that some amount of CBD will be transferred to babies through breast milk.

We also know that there is a potential for CBD products to be contaminated with substances that may pose a risk to the fetus or breastfed baby, including THC. We have also heard reports of CBD potentially containing other contaminants (e.g., pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and fungus); we are investigating this.

Moreover, CBD has known risks for people in general. Based on clinical studies in humans, risks can include the following:

  • liver toxicity (damage)
  • extreme sleepiness
  • harmful interactions with other drugs

FDA is studying the effects of CBD use from different angles, such as: (1) the use of CBD-containing products, like food, cosmetics, or supplements, over a person’s entire life; and (2) the effects of using these various products in combination. There are many unanswered questions about the science, safety, and quality of products containing CBD.

We especially want to learn more about the effects of CBD during pregnancy and while breastfeeding, including, for example, whether and to what extent the presence of CBD in human milk harms the breastfed baby or the mother’s milk production.

Has FDA approved any CBD products and are there any benefits?

FDA has not approved any CBD products except for one prescription drug to treat rare, severe forms of seizure disorders in children. It is still unclear whether CBD has any other benefits.

Other than the one approved prescription drug, CBD products have not been evaluated or approved by FDA for use as drug products. This means that we do not know:

  • if they are safe and effective to treat a particular disease
  • what, if any, dosage may be considered safe
  • how they could interact with other drugs or foods
  • whether they have dangerous side effects or other safety concerns

The clinical studies that supported the approval of the one available CBD drug product identified risks related to the use of CBD, including liver toxicity (damage), extreme sleepiness, and harmful interactions with other drugs.

What about hemp seeds?

FDA recently completed an evaluation of some hemp seed-derived food ingredients and had no objections to the use of these ingredients in foods. THC and CBD are found mainly in hemp flowers, leaves, and stems, not in hemp seeds. Hemp seeds can pick up miniscule amounts of THC and CBD from contact with other plant parts, but these amounts are low enough to not raise concerns for any group, including pregnant or breastfeeding mothers.

What should you remember about using cannabis or cannabis-derived products?

If you are considering using cannabis, or any products containing THC or CBD, you should be aware of the following:

  • FDA strongly advises that during pregnancy and while breastfeeding, you avoid using CBD, THC, or marijuana in any form.
  • Although many of these products are being sold, FDA has not approved these products, other than one prescription CBD drug product and two prescription drug products containing dronabinol, a synthetic version of THC (which are approved to treat certain side effects of HIV-AIDS or chemotherapy). All three of these prescription products have associated risks and side effects.
  • Always talk with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist before taking any medicines, vitamins, or herbs while pregnant or breastfeeding.

Do not put yourself or your baby at risk by using cannabis products while pregnant or breastfeeding. Check out these links to learn more about cannabis, marijuana, CBD, and THC, and about taking medicines while you are pregnant.

FDA strongly advises against the use of cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and marijuana in any form during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

12 Best Foods for Breastfeeding Moms

If you’re a nursing mom, add these healthy breastfeeding superfoods to your diet to get the nutrients you need.

As a breastfeeding mother, you’re a milk-making machine 24 hours a day! There isn’t a moment in the day that your body isn’t active­ly making milk for your little one. Many breastfeeding mothers report feeling constantly hungry, and this hunger comes from the amount of calories that your body uses making each ounce of milk. Fueling your body with nutrient-dense foods that help replenish it with everything it needs is vital.

While the breast­feeding superfoods in this section have not been clinically proven to be lactogenic, many have been used for centuries all around the world to nourish nursing mothers and con­tain a nutrient-rich mix of healthy fats, vitamins, minerals, phytonu­trients, and antioxidants that are ideal for the breastfeeding mother.

1. Avocados

Avocados are a nutritional power­house for nursing moms. A common complaint of nursing mothers is that they are often very hungry due to the increased caloric demands of nursing and have very little time to prep and eat meals.

Avocados are nearly 80 percent fat and help main­tain a feeling of fullness in addition to providing your body with heart-healthy fats. Avocados are also a good source of B vitamins, vitamin K, folate, potassium, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

2. Nuts

Another powerhouse of nutrition, nuts are high in essential minerals such as iron, calcium, and zinc as well as vitamin K and B vitamins. They are also a healthy source of essential fatty acids and protein. Beyond their phenomenal nutrition­al makeup, nuts are also regarded as lactogenic foods in many parts of the world.

While there’s little clini­cal evidence to substantiate the use of nuts as a galactagogue, they have been used in traditional ayurvedic medicine for generations, especially almonds, which are not only writ­ten about extensively in ayurvedic literature but are one of the most widely used lactogenic foods in the world.

3. Beans and Legumes

Beans and legumes are good sourc­es of protein, vitamins, minerals, and phytoestrogens. Chickpeas have been used as a galactagogue since the time of ancient Egypt and are a staple food in North African, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean cuisine, making them one of the most highly accessible galact­agogues.

Although chickpeas are the most traditionally used lacto­genic legume, there’s no need to limit yourself to one type of bean or legume for its lactogenic properties. For instance, soybeans have the highest phytoestrogen content of all beans. Eating a variety of beans and legumes is good not only for your general health, but also for helping to ensure that you have a healthy milk supply.

4. Mushrooms

Mushrooms aren’t typically regarded as lactogenic foods, but certain types of mushrooms are good sources of the polysaccharide beta-glucan, thought to be the principle lactogenic agent responsible for the galactagogue properties of both barley and oats. Because barley and oats have proven lactogenic power, it’s not a stretch to deduce that other foods high in beta-glucans such as mushrooms would have the same lactogenic effects.

In my own clinical practice, I’ve found that women who increase their intake of beta-glucan rich foods such as oats, barley, certain types of mushrooms, yeast, and algae/seaweed have seen an increase in milk production. Reishi, shiitake, maitake, shimeji, and oyster mushrooms have the highest beta-glucan content in the mushroom family.

5. Green Leafy Vegetables

In Thailand, a mother’s first line of defense against low milk supply is the consumption of vegetables. While there’s no current published research on the lactogenic prop­erties of green leafy vegetables, consuming more vegetables will only benefit your health while also establishing good eating habits for your baby to follow when she be­gins consuming solids around six months of age.

Green leafy vegeta­bles contain phytoestrogens, which have been shown to have a positive effect on milk production. This may be the key to understanding their lactogenic power. Many mothers worry that consuming green leafy vegetables such as broccoli or cab­bage will increase gassiness and fussiness in their infant. However, this is not true: The carbohydrate portion of these vegetables, which is what can cause gas, cannot transfer into the breast milk.

6. Red and Orange Root Vegetables

While red and orange vegetables have yet to be studied specifically for their galactagogue properties, they have been used as lactogenic foods in many cultures around the world for hundreds of years. Red and orange root vegetables such as car­rots and yams have also been used for generations in the traditional Chinese zuoyuezi diet (zuoyuezi means “sit the month” and is a time of resting for new mothers) with the belief that they not only nourish the mother, but help her nourish the child by increasing the quality and quantity of her breast milk.

Any lactogenic properties that red and orange root vegetables might have are likely similar to those of green leafy vegetables. The phytoestro­gens in these plants in addition to their high-nutrient density may play a role in improving breast milk.

7. Seeds

Seeds are a nutritional gift! They are the very beginning of life for every plant on earth. They provide a concentrated source of all the nu­trients found in the mature plant as well as the nutrients needed to grow the tiny seed into a beautiful blooming plant. Seeds are high in protein and essential minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium, as well as healthy fats.

Like nuts, seeds are not clinically proven to have lactogenic properties, but they have been used for centuries to help breastfeeding mothers thanks to their high vi­tamin and mineral content. Every seed has its unique nutritional makeup, so choose a variety in­cluding sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds.

8. Chia Seeds

While chia seeds might seem like a new phenomenon, they have been widely consumed for centuries and were a staple food of the Aztecs and Mayans. Chia seeds are not only a rich source of fiber, protein, calci­um, and magnesium but also have a high omega-3 fatty acid content. Due to their high fiber and protein content as well as their favorable fatty acid concentration, chia seeds help you feel more satisfied and fuller longer after a meal.

Chia oil is also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and has a neutral and pleasant flavor.

9. Hemp Seeds

Like chia seeds, hemp seeds have found their way onto this super­food list due to their high content of omega-3 fatty acids and healthy nutrient composition. Hemp seeds have a favorable omega-3 to omega-6 ratio of 3:1 and are a complete protein, meaning they contain all of the essential amino acids needed by the human body in perfect proportions.

While hemp seeds are high in many vitamins and minerals, they are es­pecially high in iron and zinc, which are important for infant growth and maternal health.

10. Flaxseeds

Flaxseeds are an excellent source of protein, fiber, and omega-3 fatty acids, but in order to unlock their benefits, they must be ground—whole flaxseeds can’t be digested in the body and are excreted un­changed.

Flax oil is also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and has a sweet and light taste that pairs well with veggies and blends seamlessly into smoothies. The studied health benefits of flax­seeds are far-reaching, from weight loss and blood glucose control to reduced risk of certain types of can­cers, cardiovascular disease, and inflammation.

11. Turmeric

Although turmeric is used through­out the world by breastfeeding mothers as a galactagogue, there’s no clinical evidence to sup­port that the herb has any effect on the volume of breast milk a mother produces.

However, the anti-inflammatory properties of turmeric have been demonstrated in clinical studies to be important to the health and well-being of breast­feeding mothers for the prevention and treatment of mastitis as well as to ease the symptoms associat­ed with breast engorgement. In several communities throughout Asia, turmeric is also believed to help boost the immune system of not only mom but baby, to ward off coughs and colds.

12. Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha is an herb used tra­ditionally in ayurvedic medicine that goes by many other names, including Indian ginseng and winter cherry. Ashwagandha is considered a multipurpose herb that works on several body systems at once, including the neurologic, immune, endocrine, and reproduc­tive systems. Though it hasn’t been shown to have any specific lac­togenic properties, it’s a godsend to breastfeeding mothers who are experiencing stress.

In clini­cal studies, 300 mg twice a day of ashwagandha extract significantly reduced stress in study partici­pants. Not only did the participants who received ashwagandha feel a greater relief of their overall stress and an increase in their quality of life, but their cortisol levels were significantly lower. Ashwagandha also seems to have an effect on en­durance and energy, although the reasons for this are still unknown.

Ashwagandha is a well-studied herb with more than 60 research articles available on its use for a va­riety of different disease processes, although the exact mechanism by which it works is still unknown. When you think of the many ways that stress affects every system in your body, it’s easy to see how ashwagandha’s effect on stress hor­mones can influence the rest of the body as well.

If you're a nursing mom, add these healthy breastfeeding superfoods to your diet to get the nutrients you need.