7 Benefits of Hemp Seeds + Nutrition & Side Effects
SelfHacked has the strictest sourcing guidelines in the health industry and we almost exclusively link to medically peer-reviewed studies, usually on PubMed. We believe that the most accurate information is found directly in the scientific source.
We are dedicated to providing the most scientifically valid, unbiased, and comprehensive information on any given topic.
Our team comprises of trained MDs, PhDs, pharmacists, qualified scientists, and certified health and wellness specialists.
All of our content is written by scientists and people with a strong science background.
Our science team is put through the strictest vetting process in the health industry and we often reject applicants who have written articles for many of the largest health websites that are deemed trustworthy. Our science team must pass long technical science tests, difficult logical reasoning and reading comprehension tests. They are continually monitored by our internal peer-review process and if we see anyone making material science errors, we don’t let them write for us again.
Our goal is to not have a single piece of inaccurate information on this website. If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please leave a comment or contact us at [email protected]
Note that each number in parentheses [1, 2, 3, etc.] is a clickable link to peer-reviewed scientific studies. A plus sign next to the number “[1+, 2+, etc. ]” means that the information is found within the full scientific study rather than the abstract.
Hemp seeds come from a controversial cannabis plant. Instead of getting you high, they deliver a blast of essential nutrients and potential benefits for your heart, brain, and skin. Whether you want to improve your health or enrich your diet, hemp seeds have got you covered. Read on to learn how to get the most out of them and prevent unpleasant side effects.
What Are Hemp Seeds?
Hemp seeds are the seeds of a cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa). Unlike marijuana, hemp is a cannabis strain low in psychoactive THC, and people mostly grow it for industrial and nutritional purposes and CBD extraction .
“Miracle plant” sounds like a cliche, but here’s why hemp deserves this label [2, 3, 4, 5]:
- Hemp seeds are packed with essential nutrients
- Cannabinoids from hemp have a range of potential benefits
- Hemp fiber is perfect for making ropes, clothes, and paper
- It can replace plastics and even build solid constructions
- Hemp is a potential source of biofuel
Each potential use of hemp deserves a separate article (a book, actually); this one will be about hemp seeds nutrition, potential health benefits, and precautions.
Hemp seeds deliver an array of essential nutrients and have a mild nutty flavor that blends well in smoothies and spreads. Get ready to meet one of the most nutritious foods on our planet!
- Loaded with protein, healthy fats, and minerals
- Optimal omega-6/omega-3 ratio
- High protein quality with all essential amino acids
- May protect the heart and the brain
- May help with diabetes and constipation
- Softens the skin and relieves eczema
- Therapeutic value lacks stronger clinical evidence
- Shelled seeds (hearts) are low in fiber
- May be contaminated with psychoactive THC
Hemp Seeds Nutrition
Hemp seeds are an excellent source of protein, healthy fats, and minerals. One serving packs an array of essential nutrients in their optimal ratio, along with modest 166 kcal (Table 1).
|Nutrient||Unit||Per 100 g||Per serving (30 g)|
|Fatty acids, polyunsaturated||g||38.1||11.43|
|18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid)||g||27.36||8.2|
|18:3 n-3 (alpha-linolenic acid)||g||8.684||2.605|
|18:3 n-6 (gamma-linolenic acid)||g||1.34||0.4|
Hemp seeds contain impressive 11.5 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and zero trans fats per serving. PUFAs are super-important for your health as they [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]:
- Combat inflammation
- Protect the heart and blood vessels
- Enable brain development
- Improve skin health and complexion
Hemp seeds are rich in alpha-linolenic acid, which is an essential omega-3 fatty acid. One serving delivers 160% (men) and 230% (women) of the daily value .
The second essential fatty acid is linoleic acid (omega-6), and hemp seeds will supply you with 68% (w) or 48% (m) of the daily value per serving.
The omega-6/omega-3 ratio of hemp fatty acids is 2-3/1, which most experts consider optimal for keeping inflammation in check. Western diets have a ratio of 15-17/1 and crave good omega-3 sources such as hemp seeds [1, 12, 13].
But healthy fats are just one part of their superb nutritional profile…
With 32% protein, hemp seeds are among the best protein sources you can get.
You will often hear claims about the poor quality of plant protein, but that’s not the case with hemp seeds. Protein quality score considers the content of essential amino acids and protein digestibility. With a value of 83.5-92, hemp seeds beat even some types of meat .
Hemp seeds are high in arginine, an amino acid that boosts cardiovascular health and relieves inflammation [15, 16, 17].
Vitamins and Minerals
Having a hard time achieving the optimal intake of different minerals and vitamins?
One serving (30g, 3 tbsp) of hemp seeds will provide you with [18, 19, 15, 20]:
- Magnesium: 53% (m), 68% (w) DV
- Iron: 30% (m), 13 % (w) DV
- Zinc: 27% (m), 37% (w) DV
- Phosphorus: 70% DV
- Copper: 53% DV
- Manganese: 100% (m), 128% (w) DV
- Thiamin (vitamin B1): 33% DV
*m=men; w=women; DV=daily value for adults
Hemp Seeds vs. Chia Seeds
Chia seeds are another amazing source of healthy fats and other nutrients. Hemp seeds are more nutritious in general, but chia seeds have the following advantages (Table 2):
- Fewer calories
- Much more fiber
- More vitamin A
- Much more calcium
- More omega-3 fatty acids
Hemp seeds are higher in all other nutrients, especially protein, unsaturated fats, and minerals.
Table 2 — Hemp Seeds vs. Chia Seeds Nutritional Profiles [15, 21]
|Nutrients per 100 g||Unit||Hemp Seeds||Chia Seeds|
|Fatty acids, polyunsaturated||g||38.1||23.67|
|18:3 n-3 (alpha-linolenic acid)||g||8.684||17.83|
But you don’t have to choose between hemp and chia seeds, right? Combine these two for optimal nutrition and a range of health benefits.
Hemp Seeds Health Benefits
How It Works
As mentioned above, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in their optimal ratio reduce inflammation, soothe the skin, and lower the risk of various chronic diseases [6, 7, 8, 9, 22].
Hemp seeds contain unique polyphenols – cannabisinins – with potent antioxidant activity. Hemp protein and flavonoids such as quercetin also combat free radicals [23, 24, 25].
Arginine and other active compounds in hemp protein shield the heart and blood vessels [17, 26].
1) Heart Health
According to different reviews and clinical trials, optimal intake of alpha-linolenic acid and other omega-3s found in hemp seeds can [27, 28, 29, 30]:
- Reduce cholesterol and blood lipids
- Enhance heart function and protect blood vessels
- Decrease blood pressure
- Prevent blood clotting
Arginine from hemp protein stimulates the production of nitric oxide (relaxing blood vessels) and cuts the levels of inflammatory CRP, according to a study of over 13,000 participants. Both effects can prevent heart disease [17, 31, 32].
Cholesterol and Blood Lipids
Omega-3 fatty acids help to keep blood lipids in check, but the specific effects of hemp seeds and their oil are not well studied in humans.
In 14 healthy volunteers, hemp seed oil (30 ml daily for 4 weeks) had only minor effects on blood lipids and cholesterol .
Low doses of hemp seed oil (3 g daily) enriched red blood cells of 36 children with omega-3 fatty acids but didn’t affect their blood lipid profile .
In animal trials, hemp seeds lowered cholesterol levels and provided antioxidant support [35, 36].
In test tubes, hemp protein acted similar to statins (lipid-lowering drugs) by blocking an enzyme vital for the production of LDL cholesterol. According to another cell-based experiment, hemp seed extract may prevent LDL oxidation, a major cause of atherosclerosis [37, 38, 39].
Still, this doesn’t mean hemp seeds would do the same in the human body.
2) Brain and Nerve Protection
Dietary fats, especially omega-3 fatty acids, are essential for mental health and brain development. Thanks to their high omega-3 content and other anti-inflammatory components, hemp seeds may protect the brain and nerves .
In 100 patients with multiple sclerosis, a combination of hemp seed and evening primrose oils helped repair nerve damage and improved the symptoms .
Researchers observed the ability of hemp seed oil to combat autoimmune nerve impairment (as seen in MS) in a study on mice .
In a clinical trial of 120 patients, hemp seed pills (15 g daily for 8 weeks) improved the symptoms of constipation by 43% vs. 8% placebo .
Hemp seeds stimulated the colon and relieved constipation in one study on rats .
Note: The majority of fiber, which supports bowel movements, is in the outer shell of hemp seeds. Whole seeds would thus be more beneficial for constipation, but their consumption comes with certain risks (see “Hemp Seeds FAQ” for more details).
4) Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a complex condition that involves obesity, insulin resistance, and increased blood lipids .
According to a large observational trial (1.2K patients), high intake of arginine from plant sources can lower the risk of metabolic syndrome by 42%. With 4.6 g of arginine per 100 g, hemp seeds are among the best plant sources of this amino acid [46, 47].
Consumption of both soluble and insoluble fiber from hemp seeds may reduce the risk of diabetes [48, 49].
In cell studies, hemp protein cut the levels of glucose using the same mechanism as diabetes drugs called gliptins. Scientists speculate if hemp protein may enhance their potency while reducing side effects, but the available evidence is far from conclusive [50, 51].
5) PMS and Menopause
Supplementation with essential fatty acids found in hemp seeds (1-2 g daily for 6 months) reduced the symptoms of PMS in 120 women .
The beneficial effects mostly come from gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which may reduce inflammation and maintain hormonal balance [53, 54].
When women enter menopause, they lose the beneficial effects of estrogen and often face unpleasant mood swings. Hemp seeds reduced anxiety in postmenopausal rats [55, 56].
Bone loss and osteoporosis are one of the hallmarks of menopause. A supplement with GLA increased bone mineral density (BMD) in 65 older women .
Hemp Seed Oil Benefits for the Skin
Hemp seeds are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that nurture the skin and prevent disorders such as [58, 6, 7]:
- Skin UV damage
Although people tend to focus on omega-3s, GLA is an omega-6 fatty acid from hemp seeds that delivers powerful skin benefits.
6) Eczema and Dry Skin
In 20 patients with eczema, hemp seed oil (30 ml daily) supplied the skin with PUFAs and reduced symptoms such as skin irritation. It showed better results than olive oil .
According to clinical trials, foods and oils rich in gamma-linolenic acid can soften the skin and relieve eczema [60, 61, 62].
Propionibacterium acnes is, you guessed it, a leading cause of acne. Hemp seed extract inhibited the growth and reduced inflammation caused by this germ in test tubes .
A review of herbs used for skin conditions underlined hemp seed oil as a potential remedy for dry skin, eczema, acne, psoriasis, and more .
Hemp seeds are rich in oil, but it’s not sure if they would deliver the same health benefits.
Limitations and Caveats
Despite the fantastic nutritional profile of hemp seeds and their potential health benefits, we lack solid clinical data to shed more light on this peculiar food. Most findings stem from low-quality clinical, animal, and cell-based research.
Also, the majority of trials have examined hemp seed oil, isolated nutrients, and active components but not the seeds themselves. Researchers emphasize the need to better understand the metabolism of hemp seeds and their nutrients .
Now let’s see if there’s anything about hemp seeds that should concern you.
Hemp Seeds Side Effects
Clinical trials with hemp seeds and their oil haven’t reported major side effects in children and adults [33, 43, 41, 34].
Hemp seeds are natural plant food, and there’s no apparent reason to avoid them unless you’re allergic to hemp (Cannabis sativa).
But… There’s public concern about psychoactive THC in hemp seeds, and it may be more than just “anti-cannabis propaganda.”
Although the seeds contain only trace amounts of THC, CBD and other cannabinoids (even in marijuana strains), contamination with THC from the plant is possible .
As a matter of fact, doctors reported a case of one child with mildly altered behavior due to 3-week hemp seed oil consumption .
Some lab analyses confirmed there’s a possibility of hemp seed THC contamination. If you are concerned about this, consult with your doctor before consuming hemp seeds. To learn more about this issue and how to overcome it, read “Hemp Seeds FAQ” below .
How to Eat Hemp Seeds
In terms of quantity, you can start with 1 tablespoon daily and increase to a standard serving for seeds: 28-30g or 3 tbsp. Hemp seed oil showed beneficial effects in doses of 20-30 ml daily.
If you’re aiming to boost your nutrition, stick with the seeds because they contain healthy fats + loads of other essential nutrients.
Hemp seeds have a rich nutty flavor, and they blend well in salads, smoothies, spreads, oatmeal, etc. They’re also a good option for people with nut allergies. Delicious hemp seeds recipes are easy to come across – go find your favorites.
Besides the oil, other products made from hemp seeds include:
- Hemp butter: blended hemp seeds +/- added oil
- Hemp flour: a byproduct of oil extraction (no oil)
- Hemp protein: hemp flour with a higher protein content
- Hemp milk: blended hemp seeds with water +/- other ingredients
Hemp Seeds FAQ
What Is in Hemp Hearts?
Hemp hearts are seeds without the shell, also known as hulled/shelled hemp seeds or hemp kernels. They are more common, tastier, and easier to digest than the whole seeds.
On the other hand, whole seeds contain much more fiber and may help relieve constipation. The shell is quite hard so you may want to go for ground seeds or pills. Also, you can sprout whole seeds only.
Do Hemp Seeds Contain THC? Can They Get You High?
First of all, hemp is an ‘industrial’ strain of Cannabis sativa with negligible THC content. Secondly, the seeds themselves contain only trace amounts of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, even in marijuana strains.
However, THC from the plant may end up on the outer surface of the seeds during the harvest or storage. In most countries, the official limit for THC content in hemp seeds is 10 mcg/1g (10 ppm), but some products may have up to 12 times more THC .
But how’s that if hemp doesn’t contain THC? Well, due to weak regulations, some producers actually cultivate THC-rich strains instead of industrial hemp .
Still, it’s highly unlikely that eating the seeds will get you high. To be 100% sure your product has no THC:
- Buy from trusted brands that test their products for THC content
- Choose hemp hearts (shelled hemp seeds) instead of the whole seeds
- If you consume whole seeds, though, make sure to wash them thoroughly first
Hemp Seeds and Drug Tests
If hemp seeds can be contaminated with THC, can they also cause you to fail a routine drug test? Well, they might just do so! Some people did have detectable urine THC levels after consuming hemp seed oil, butter, and other products [69, 70].
On the other hand, some studies didn’t detect THC after regular hemp seed consumption [71, 72].
If you follow the above steps, you won’t have issues with THC contamination and drug test results. To stay on the safe side, however, you may want to skip hemp seeds a few days before the scheduled testing.
Hemp seeds are made from industrial cannabis (Cannabis sativa), also known as hemp. They are loaded with high-quality protein, healthy fats, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and more. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seeds have an ideal omega-6/omega-3 ratio.
Overall, this superfood may combat inflammation, protect the heart, brain, and blood vessels, and soothe the skin. But despite their promising health effects, clinical research on hemp seeds and their therapeutic potential remains limited.
You can use hemp seeds in salads, smoothies, spreads, oatmeal, and other delicious recipes. Butter, oil, milk, flour, and protein powder from hemp seeds are also available.
To avoid contamination with psychoactive THC, make sure to buy from verified suppliers who test their products. If you consume whole seeds (with the shell), wash them thoroughly first.
In the midst of the Coronavirus pandemic, we’ve got to do everything we can to keep our bodies as healthy as possible. SelfDecode’s personalized DNA reports can tell you which vitamins and mineral deficiencies you’re susceptible to, and which foods to consume to prevent these deficiencies. Start your journey to optimal health with SelfDecode today.
About the Author
RATE THIS ARTICLE
(4 votes, average: 4.00 out of 5)
The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
Hemp seeds deliver a blast of essential nutrients and benefits for your heart, brain, and skin. Here’s how to use them.
Hemp seeds side effects
Hemp is a plant. It is the same species of plant as cannabis. But unlike cannabis, hemp contains very low levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), less than 0.3%. It is legal to sell hemp and hemp products in the U.S. But it is not legal to isolate cannabinoids from hemp to include in foods or dietary supplements. This is because one of the cannabinoids, called cannabidiol, is approved as a prescription drug. Since it’s a prescription drug, it can’t be included in dietary supplements. Hemp flowers, leaves, seed, seed oil, and protein are used as food and/or medicine.
Hemp is used for constipation, high cholesterol, eczema (atopic dermatitis), arthritis, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Hemp is used to make cloth, cosmetics, rope, printer’s ink, wood preservative, detergents, soaps, and lighting oil.
Don’t confuse hemp with Canadian hemp, hemp agrimony, cannabis, or cannabidiol (CBD).
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Insufficient Evidence for
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Taking hemp seed oil might relieve some symptoms of eczema, including dryness and itchiness. But it doesn’t seem to work better than taking olive oil.
- Inherited tendency towards high cholesterol (familial hypercholesterolemia). Early research shows that taking hemp seed oil doesn’t lower cholesterol levels in children with familial hypercholesterolemia who are already following a low-fat diet.
- Obesity. Early research shows that taking a hemp oil extract does not reduce weight in overweight adults.
- Stress. Early research shows that taking a hemp oil extract does not reduce stress in overweight adults.
- Menstrual cramps.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS).
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate hemp for these uses.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t enough reliable information to know if hemp is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: There isn’t enough information to know whether hemp can be safely used by children. Hemp seed oil has caused rare cases of sleepiness and blood shot eyes in children.
Allergy to cannabis: People who are allergic to cannabis might also be allergic to hemp. Use hemp with caution if you are allergic to cannabis.
Low blood pressure: Hemp protein might lower blood pressure. In some people this might make blood pressure fall too low. Use hemp protein with caution if you have low blood pressure.
Surgery: Hemp protein might lower blood pressure. In some people this might make blood pressure fall too low, especially during surgery. Stop using hemp protein at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
We currently have no information for HEMP Interactions .
Al-Khalifa A, Maddaford TG, Chahine MN, et al. Effect of dietary hempseed intake on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(3):R1198-203. View abstract.
Alkhammash S, Tsui H, Thomson DMP. Cannabis and hemp seed allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(7):2429-2430.e1. View abstract.
Andres C. Important legislative and regulatory changes impacting the commercialization of cannabis, hemp, and CBD. Altern Ther Health Med. 2019;25(S2):36-38. View abstract.
Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, et al. Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005;16(2):87-94. View abstract.
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. FDA Responds to Three GRAS Notices for Hemp Seed-Derived Ingredients for Use in Human Food. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/food/cfsan-constituent-updates/fda-responds-three-gras-notices-hemp-seed-derived-ingredients-use-human-food. Accessed December 20, 2019.
Cheng CW, Bian ZX, Zhu LX, Wu JC, Sung JJ. Efficacy of a Chinese herbal proprietary medicine (Hemp Seed Pill) for functional constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(1):120-9. View abstract.
Chinello M, Scommegna S, Shardlow A, et al. Cannabinoid poisoning by hemp seed oil in a child. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2017;33(5):344-345. View abstract.
Citti C, Linciano P, Panseri S, et al. Cannabinoid profiling of hemp seed oil by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:120. View abstract.
Del Bo’ C, Deon V, Abello F, et al. Eight-week hempseed oil intervention improves the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phospholipids and the omega-3 index, but does not affect the lipid profile in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia. Food Res Int. 2019;119:469-476. View abstract.
Frassinetti S, Moccia E, Caltavuturo L, et al. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts. Food Chem. 2018;262:56-66. View abstract.
Gavel NT, Edel AL, Bassett CM, et al. The effect of dietary hempseed on atherogenesis and contractile function in aortae from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Acta Physiol Hung. 2011;98(3):273-83. View abstract.
Girgih AT, Alashi A, He R, Malomo S, Aluko RE. Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(5):1237-46. View abstract.
Girgih AT, Alashi AM, He R, et al. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):5652-66. View abstract.
Hazekamp A. The trouble with CBD oil. Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2018 Jun;1:65-72.
House JD, Neufeld J, Leson G. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(22):11801-7. View abstract.
Jeong M, Cho J, Shin JI, et al. Hempseed oil induces reactive oxygen species- and C/EBP homologous protein-mediated apoptosis in MH7A human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synovial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;154(3):745-52. View abstract.
Jin S, Lee MY. The ameliorative effect of hemp seed hexane extracts on the Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and lipogenesis in sebocytes. PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0202933. View abstract.
Kaul N, Kreml R, Austria JA, et al. A comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation on selected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteers. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:51-8. View abstract.
Lopez HL, Cesareo KR, Raub B, et al. Effects of hemp extract on markers of wellness, stress resilience, recovery and clinical biomarkers of safety in overweight, but otherwise healthy subjects. J Diet Suppl. 2020;17(5):561-86. View abstracts.
Lu XF, Jia MD, Zhang SS, Zhao LQ. Effects of Hemp seed soft capsule on colonic ion transport in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23(42):7563-7571. View abstract.
MikulcovГЎ V, KaspГЎrkovГЎ V, HumpolГcek P, BunkovГЎ L. Formulation, characterization and properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions. Molecules. 2017;22(5). pii: E700. View abstract.
Moccia S, Siano F, Russo GL, et al. Antiproliferative and antioxidant effect of polar hemp extracts (Cannabis sativa L., Fedora cv.) in human colorectal cell lines. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2019:1-14. View abstract.
Montserrat-de la Paz S, MarГn-Aguilar F, GarcГa-GimГ©nez MD, FernГЎndez-Arche MA. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(5):1105-10. View abstract.
Prociuk M, Edel A, Gavel N, et al. The effects of dietary hempseed on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2006;11(3):198-205. View abstract.
Rezapour-Firouzi S, Arefhosseini SR, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani M, et al. Activity of liver enzymes in multiple sclerosis patients with Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention. Complement Ther Med. 2014;22(6):986-93. View abstract.
Rezapour-Firouzi S, Arefhosseini SR, Mehdi F, et al. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-natured diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients. Complement Ther Med 2013;21(5):473-80.
Richard MN, Ganguly R, Steigerwald SN, Al-Khalifa A, Pierce GN. Dietary hempseed reduces platelet aggregation. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5(2):424-5. View abstract.
Rodriguez-Martin NM, Toscano R, Villanueva A, et al. Neuroprotective protein hydrolysates from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds. Food Funct. 2019;10(10):6732-6739. View abstract.
Saberivand A, Karimi I, Becker LA, et al. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hempseed) in the ovariectomized rat model of menopause. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010;32(7):467-73. View abstract.
Schwab US, Callaway JC, ErkkilГ¤ AT, Gynther J, Uusitupa MI, JГ¤rvinen T. Effects of hempseed and flaxseed oils on the profile of serum lipids, serum total and lipoprotein lipid concentrations and haemostatic factors. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45(8):470-7. View abstract.
Stadtmauer G, Beyer K, Bardina L, Sicherer SH. Anaphylaxis to ingestion of hempseed (Cannabis sativa). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112(1):216-7. View abstract.
Statement from FDA Commissioner Scot Gottlieb, M.D., on signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency’s regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-signing-agriculture-improvement-act-and-agencys. (Accessed May 7, 2019).
Stokes JR, Hartel R, Ford LB, Casale TB. Cannabis (hemp) positive skin tests and respiratory symptoms. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000;85(3):238-40. View abstract.
VanDolah HJ, Bauer BA, Mauck KF. Clinicians’ Guide to cannabidiol and hemp oils. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(9):1840-1851. View abstract.
Yousofi M, Saberivand A, Becker LA, Karimi I. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats. Dev Psychobiol. 2011;53(4):402-12. View abstract.
Zanoni C, Aiello G, Arnoldi A, Lammi C. Hempseed peptides exert hypocholesterolemic effects with a statin-like mechanism. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65(40):8829-8838. View abstract.
Learn more about HEMP uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain HEMP.