Many people claim CBD improves their sleep and reduces anxiety. Learn what CBD is, how CBD might help you, and what research needs to be done on CBD. From price to potency to additional sleep-promoting ingredients, see which CBD oils for sleep stand out as our top picks.
CBD as a Sleep Aid
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A good night’s sleep is essential to your overall health and wellbeing. Experts recommend adults sleep seven to nine hours each night. Proper sleep ensures you feel well-rested and have energy for the next day. A good night’s rest also contributes to memory formation, helps grow and repair muscle and tissue, and prevents sickness.
Unfortunately, falling asleep or staying asleep can be difficult for certain types of sleepers. As many as 70% of Americans report not sleeping the recommended hours, and nearly one-third of American workers sleep less than six hours per night. Solutions for better sleep and avoiding sleep debt vary. Possible approaches include improved sleep hygiene, prescription sleep aids, and natural sleep aids.
One increasingly popular strategy for sleeping better is taking cannabidiol (CBD), a derivative of cannabis. CBD is commonly used to improve sleep and decrease anxiety. However, the regulation of CBD in the United States is limited, and much more research must be done to determine the exact effects CBD has on sleep and other physical and mental health concerns.
About Cannabis and Cannabinoids
While there are many different slang terms for the green, narrow-leafed plant you may recognize, the plant is scientifically called Cannabis sativa. The word “cannabis” can be used to describe any products made from the plant. Cannabis plants contain multiple chemical compounds, including a group referred to as “cannabinoids.” Out of more than 100 cannabinoids, researchers have primarily studied two that appear to have the greatest impact on humans: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD.
What Is Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)?
Most commonly known effects of cannabis, such as “getting high,” are caused by the cannabinoid, THC. The term “marijuana” specifically refers to parts of the Cannabis sativa plant that contain THC.
Cannabis plants and derivatives that contain less than 0.3% THC are classified as “hemp.” As of 2018, hemp is no longer defined as a controlled substance by the U.S. federal government. As a result, there has been an influx of hemp-related products in the American market. These products are generally marketed as CBD products.
What Is Cannabidiol (CBD)?
CBD, the other commonly known cannabinoid, can be legally sold in the U.S. when extracted from hemp and marketed according to relevant regulations. CBD does not have psychoactive properties and does not bring about the same effects as THC. Also, CBD does not have effects that would lead to potential dependency or risk of abuse.
CBD is an increasingly popular substance in the U.S. While many health benefits have been attributed to CBD, in most cases, scientific validity of its effectiveness is still unclear.
Is CBD FDA-Approved?
Only a few cannabis-derived or cannabis-related drug products are FDA-approved in the U.S.:
- Epidiolex. This oral CBD solution was the first drug containing a purified cannabis-derived substance approved by the FDA. The drug is approved for seizure treatment in rare and severe forms of epilepsy, Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis complex for patients ages two and up. Although Epidiolex has been shown to reduce other types of seizures, it has not yet been FDA-approved for treating those seizures.
- Marinol and Syndros. These two drugs contain dronabinol, a synthetic form of THC. They come in capsules or oral solutions. Dronabinol affects the part of the brain that controls appetite, nausea, and vomiting, so the drugs have several therapeutic uses. These uses include the treatment of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients and treatment of weight loss in patients with HIV.
- Cesamet. Cesamet contains nabilone, a synthetic compound with a chemical structure similar to THC. Like dronabinol, this capsule also affects the part of the brain that controls vomiting and nausea. The drug is prescribed to patients receiving chemotherapy who have not responded to other nausea and vomiting treatments.
The FDA has not approved any other CBD drug products. The agency has not determined the safety and effectiveness of cannabis or CBD in the treatment of any particular conditions or disease.
What Forms Does CBD Come In?
There are several common forms of CBD:
- Oral solutions, such as the FDA-approved drug Epidiolex
- Oral sprays that are applied under the tongue
- Oils and tinctures, sometimes described as drops or droplets
- Vapes and vape juices to use in a vaping pen
- Edible items, such as gummies, chocolates, or cookies, and beverages, such as coffees and teas
- Pills and capsules
- Topical solutions, including lotions, creams, patches, gels, and ointments
What Are Common Doses of CBD?
Outside of Epidiolex, the FDA doesn’t regulate dosing of non-drug CBD products. As a result, the amount of CBD in products varies widely among forms.
Research shows 300-mg oral doses of CBD can be taken safely on a daily basis for up to six months. One scientific review showed that taking up to 1,500 mg daily was well-tolerated by participants. A subsequent review confirmed that use of 1,500 mg daily for four weeks showed no negative effects.
Unfortunately, the indicated CBD content on a product label is not necessarily the amount that the product actually contains, which may lead people to take more or less CBD than intended. One analysis of 84 CBD products sold online showed that 26% of the products contained less CBD than the label said. The same analysis showed nearly 43% of the products were underlabled, meaning they contained substantially more CBD than the label said.
While CBD at higher doses does not appear to have serious negative consequences, these products may also contain higher levels of THC than reported on the label. Other CBD products may contain THC that is not reported on the label at all. The THC in these products can produce intoxicating effects, which may or may not be desired.
What Are the Effects of Taking CBD?
Research shows that CBD has a calming effect on the nervous system. CBD can also alter mood because it affects the serotonin system. Outcomes vary among people and depend on the product type and dose.
Unlike THC, CBD does not induce a feeling of being “high.” Even large doses of CBD do not produce THC-like effects. Additionally, a few studies have demonstrated that CBD reduces the psychoactive effects of THC.
Studies of short-term CBD use show that patients do not experience withdrawal.
What Health Conditions Can CBD Help With?
So far, CBD’s effectiveness in the treatment of epilepsy is well-supported by research. Other early research suggests that CBD may also help treat schizophrenia and substance use disorders.
Currently, there is insufficient research to determine the effectiveness of CBD in treating other health conditions. However, preliminary research suggests CBD can help with a number of sleep disorders, including insomnia REM sleep behavior disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness disorder. Additional preliminary research suggests CBD can also help patients improve sleep and reduce anxiety.
What Are the Risks of CBD?
Most negative effects of CBD medications and products are mild. For example, patients who use Epidiolex may experience diarrhea or other gastrointestinal issues. Some people may experience drowsiness when they take CBD. Other negative effects experienced with CBD may be due to an interaction between the CBD and other medications the patient is taking.
How Can CBD Help With Sleep Disorders?
Research on the effects CBD has on sleep disorders is still preliminary. Some people who use CBD for chronic pain report sleeping better. Currently, it is unclear whether these patients sleep better because of the pain relief or because CBD directly affects their sleep.
Other initial studies of CBD and sleep disorders suggest positive outcomes. However, not everyone experiences the same sleep benefits with CBD use, and different doses might lead to different effects. Research suggests that low doses of CBD are stimulating, while high doses of CBD are sedating. Discrepancies in experience can also be attributed to the method of CBD administration and dose. Additional research is needed to deepen our understanding of CBD as an intervention for sleep disorders.
Anxiety and CBD
While not a sleep disorder itself, anxiety can contribute to poor quality sleep, insufficient sleep, and sleep disorders. Because CBD calms the nervous system, early research indicates that CBD can be used to treat anxiety-related disorders. One study showed that nearly 80% of participants who used CBD to treat their anxiety reported lower anxiety levels within a month. Sleep initially improved in more than 65% percent of participants, followed by fluctuating results.
Insomnia and CBD
People who suffer from insomnia experience difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep at night. This disorder affects daytime wakefulness, ability to concentrate, and mood. Because of their history of poor sleep, people with insomnia may suffer from anxiety about getting inadequate sleep, which can then increase sleeplessness at night.
Given the potential positive outcomes of CBD treating anxiety, it is speculated that CBD may also help reduce the anxiety associated with insomnia. Additionally, a new pilot study of CBD and THC use in humans with physician-diagnosed insomnia is underway. The results of the study will offer more insight into the effects CBD has on insomnia.
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and CBD
In REM sleep behavior disorder, patients verbalize and make aggressive movements during their rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep. The disorder is most common in older patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
In a limited study of four patients with Parkinson’s disease, CBD helped manage the REM sleep behavior disorder symptoms. Before taking CBD, the patients experienced disorder symptoms 2–7 times per week. After taking CBD, the symptoms occurred 0–1 times in a week. Further studies are necessary, but these initial results suggest CBD as a possible treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder.
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Disorder and CBD
Those who have excessive daytime sleepiness disorder struggle to stay awake during typical daytime hours. One solution for waking up on time and staying wake may be CBD. Initial research on animals shows that CBD functions as a wake-inducing drug. However, other studies suggest CBD functions as a sedating drug. Further research is needed to determine what doses and methods of CBD use affect wakefulness and sleepiness.
Does CBD Interact With Other Prescriptions?
CBD can interact with other prescriptions a person takes. In particular, CBD can slow the liver’s ability to break down certain medications. Additionally, using CBD as well as herbs or supplements can make the patient too sleepy.
Before using any CBD product, consult your doctor. Let your doctor know of any medications, herbs, or supplements you are taking, so they can assess if CBD might cause a negative interaction. Your doctor will be able to inform you if CBD is a viable option to meet your health goals.
CBD Oil For Sleep
To choose the best CBD oil for sleep, the Forbes Health editorial team analyzed data on more than 50 products that are:
- Made from plants grown in the U.S.
- Have a certificate of analysis (COA)
- Are third-party tested by ISO 17025-compliant laboratories
- Are made with all natural ingredients
We then ranked CBD oil based on price, potency and the inclusion of sleep-promoting ingredients, such as melatonin, L-theanine and/or botanicals like chamomile.
Why Use CBD Oil for Sleep?
Using CBD oil for sleep may allow for faster and more predictable absorption because it’s administered via mucosal dosing, says Mark H. Ratner, M.D., the chief science officer at Theralogix, a nutritional supplement company.
“Tinctures or oils that are placed under the tongue provide absorption directly into the bloodstream and avoid the first pass effect,” he says, referring to what happens when a drug loses potency by the time it reaches its target or systemic circulation.
CBD oils are typically administered through a dropper, which makes it easy to know the dose you’re taking. This method also allows users to start with a low dose and work their way up as needed.
In addition to helping facilitate sleep, CBD can potentially help relieve symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD, opioid addiction and chronic pain.
By helping someone get more sleep, CBD oil can tangentially help improve other areas of life, according to Mikhail Heifitz, the chief operating officer of CBD product company Unabis. He notes that people who get better sleep may enjoy other benefits, such as:
- Increased focus during the day
- Weight control, as feeling more awake and energized can lead to increased physical activity and balanced eating habits
- Anxiety relief
Potential Risks and Side Effects
Potential side effects of CBD include sedation, sleep disturbances, anemia, diarrhea, fatigue and vomiting. CBD may also interact with other drugs you take.
“We suggest starting with small amounts of CBD, then slowly increasing the dosage to test how your body reacts and adjusting the dosage accordingly,” says Heifitz. You should also talk to your doctor about adding CBD to your wellness routine, especially if you take any other medications.
You may also have a reaction to other ingredients in CBD oil products, such as MCT oil, which is often used as a carrier oil in CBD products.
A Bedtime Routine Like No Other
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Ingredients to Look for in CBD Oil for Sleep
While CBD alone can lull some people to sleep, especially in higher doses, CBD oils for sleep often include other sleep-promoting ingredients, such as:
Cannabinol (CBN). Another increasingly popular cannabinoid, CBN can help treat epidermolysis bullosa (rare diseases that cause the skin to blister easily), glaucoma and chronic muscle pain.
Cannabigerol (CBG). This cannabinoid may have antibacterial properties and may help treat neurologic disorders and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Melatonin. This hormone can be created artificially to help relieve jet lag, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, sleep disorders in children and pre- and post-surgery anxiety.
L-theanine. A common amino acid, L-theanine can cause relaxation in high doses.
Chamomile. This herbal flower is often used to treat sleeplessness, anxiety and gastrointestinal issues.
Lemon balm. Another botanical, lemon balm may contain antioxidant properties.
Valerian root. A plant native to Europe and Asia, valerian root is historically used to treat insomnia, migraines, fatigue and stomach cramps. Today, it’s used sporadically for insomnia, anxiety and depression.
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). A natural chemical that’s been used in treatments for depression, 5-HTP may help with insomnia and anxiety due to its relationship with serotonin.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).This neurotransmitter may help with sleep and anxiety when taken as a supplement.
Terpenes. These naturally occurring compounds typically found in plants form the majority of essential oil composition.
CBD Oil Dosage for Sleep
Experts recommend following the dosage instructions listed on the CBD product you choose.
A low dose of 10 to 20 milligrams of CBD is a smart place to start, according to Dr. Ratner. From there, you can increase your dose as needed.
Forbes Health covers CBD and cannabis products in accordance with FTC guidelines. Learn more about Forbes Health’s practices and policies regarding how we cover CBD and cannabis as a publisher.
Frequently Asked Questions
How quickly do you notice a difference with CBD oil for sleep?
Thanks to the oral mucosal administration of CBD oil, it can take effect as quickly as 20 minutes after you take it, but it could require up to 40 minutes.
You may not notice a systemic difference until after using CBD for a few days. “After reaching a cumulative effect sufficient for calming down your nervous system over the longer periods of time, you will likely feel the effect you’re looking for,” says Heifitz.
He adds that you may need to take CBD in smaller doses throughout the day to achieve the desired effect by bedtime rather than taking it in one dose.
Does CBD oil for sleep have intoxicating effects?
What sets CBD apart from THC is its lack of intoxicating effects. In fact, a CBD isolate or broad-spectrum CBD product should have zero or undetectable levels of THC. Full-spectrum products, on the other hand, are allowed to contain up to 0.3% THC, but this limit should still not be enough to create an intoxicating effect.
Next Up in Body
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Information provided on Forbes Health is for educational purposes only. Your health and wellness is unique to you, and the products and services we review may not be right for your circumstances. We do not offer individual medical advice, diagnosis or treatment plans. For personal advice, please consult with a medical professional.
Forbes Health adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. To the best of our knowledge, all content is accurate as of the date posted, though offers contained herein may no longer be available. The opinions expressed are the author’s alone and have not been provided, approved or otherwise endorsed by our advertisers.
Lauren Silva, a freelance writer in New York City, believes in feeling good in your body and making that experience accessible to everyone across generations. The proof is in her ever-piling browser tabs and newsletters, which help her stay on top of the latest wellness trends. When she’s not researching sustainable alternatives to her everyday products, Lauren is likely attempting to make a dent in her “TBR” book pile.
Robby has spent his career in a variety of writing, editing and storytelling roles. He now resides near Birmingham, Alabama, with his wife and three kids. He enjoys woodworking, playing rec league soccer and supporting chaotic, downtrodden sports franchises like the Miami Dolphins and Tottenham Hotspur.